Tunnel engineering has heavy construction tasks, large engineering volume, tight construction period, high investment, and strong seasonality. For tunnel construction machinery and equipment that operates in the field all year round, mandatory maintenance of equipment is particularly necessary. According to the data, 6% of the major failures of construction machinery are caused by mechanical operation errors, 38% are caused by regular maintenance errors, and 56% are caused by loss of insurance and loss of maintenance. Each company’s annual mechanical maintenance costs are 17.6 of the mechanical construction output value. Most of the maintenance costs are caused by the loss of maintenance of parts and components, early wear and tear, and reduced service life.
If the mechanical equipment involves a wide range and variety, the maintenance cost will take up a larger proportion. Moreover, the maintenance and repair phases of equipment account for part of the total life cycle of equipment, which affects the progress of engineering construction and reduces the efficiency of mechanical construction. Therefore, the maintenance and maintenance of mechanical equipment is imperative.
Problems in the management of tunnel construction machinery and equipment
1) There are potential safety hazards in equipment management
As the current construction market is not very standardized and the management system is not yet fully in place, some corporate leaders have tried every means to reduce costs in order to pursue profits and political achievements. The necessary equipment renewal and transformation funds are reluctant to invest, resulting in abnormally obsolete and aging equipment. , There are hidden dangers in the equipment, and the bane of accidents is buried.
2) The company’s equipment management is gradually weakening
This phenomenon of inadequate attention to equipment management in enterprises, especially in non-publicly owned medium and small enterprises, is more common. First of all, in the many management tasks of the enterprise, production and operation and safety are undoubtedly placed in the most important position, while equipment management has become the “inferior” work that is important to say, less important to do, and not to be busy. Secondly, many companies lack special talents who have both professional skills and management and coordination capabilities. Third, most of the construction companies with high qualifications and strong management capabilities are currently appearing as general construction contractors, and they have objectively withdrawn from the front line of equipment management work, which is also an important reason why this management work is weakening.
3) The team of construction workers has changed, making it more difficult to manage equipment
The construction workers in our country have changed from level 1-8 technical workers owned by the original enterprises to temporary workers and peasant workers who have not participated in any training and are scattered and scattered. This group of people is highly mobile, the quality of the personnel is uneven, and they have little knowledge of basic common sense such as the performance of mechanical equipment, operating procedures, and maintenance. In addition, most of their work content is the nature of contracting and other objective conditions, which determines that the daily maintenance and maintenance work of the equipment that should be completed by these people will not be completed, and the daily maintenance work of the equipment can only stay. on the surface.
Measures for the management of construction machinery and equipment
The safety of machinery is based on the needs of people, and in various states of the whole process of using machinery (use, repair, maintenance), to achieve the existence and guarantee conditions of protecting people’s body and mind from external factors. In view of the above difficult problems, the following solutions are proposed in combination with the actual situation of the construction process.
1) Correct selection and reasonable deployment
Any kind of machinery has certain technical requirements for its use due to its own performance, structure and other characteristics. If the machinery can be used in strict accordance with the regulations and rationally, it can give full play to the mechanical efficiency, reduce mechanical wear, extend the service life, and reduce the cost of use. Regarding the problem of mechanical deployment among various projects, we should grasp the project progress of each construction project and the requirements of mechanical equipment and exit information in time in advance, arrange the secondary maintenance work in the process of mechanical equipment call, and solve the use and The conflict of maintenance.
2) Do a good job in safety testing of special equipment
Special equipment is an assembly of pressure-bearing and manned equipment closely related to personal, property safety, and human health. During the production process, it is more potentially dangerous than general production equipment. Since special equipment is a dangerous equipment, it is easy to cause accidents to cause injury to the operator or others, as well as major property losses such as mechanical equipment and public facilities. In order to ensure its normal operation, regular and roving inspections must be carried out. Avoid mechanical accidents and ensure production safety and life safety.
3) Personnel training, work with certificates
Personnel training includes job skills training and personnel safety education and training. The training and education of personnel must be planned, deployed, inspected, assessed, and targeted;
1. It is necessary to grasp the entry of machinery operators of construction projects, and ensure that the three-level safety education work before starting the job is in place;
2. Compile corresponding safety production knowledge and safety operation procedures manuals and distribute them to every operator on the site;
3. Do a good job in safety training for machinery and equipment management personnel. At the same time, the safety education and training of relevant personnel should establish the concept of “safety education and training for all employees”. No matter who directly or indirectly participates in machinery and equipment-related production activities, they must receive safety education and training. From leaders to general workers, and even family members of producers, they must be informed about the production and labor involved. The importance of safety and protection awareness, self-protection awareness and self-protection methods allow them to realize the importance of safety from the ideological level, so as to control the occurrence of mechanical equipment safety accidents from the source.
Economic benefits of compulsory maintenance of construction machinery and equipment
Maintenance technical requirements are simple, low cost, while ensuring the normal operation of the equipment, reducing the wear of parts and extending the service life of the equipment, especially for large-scale, imported and other major machinery, the necessary technical maintenance operations must be strengthened to eliminate hidden troubles. The equipment is operating normally. It can also reduce a lot of unnecessary costs and greatly improve the economic benefits of enterprises. The shorter the service life of the equipment, the higher the reliability, and the longer the service life, the lower the reliability. The lower the reliability, the mechanical equipment is prone to failure, the more serious the physical wear of the equipment, the greater the cost of repairing it. Modern machinery and equipment are capital-intensive equipment, and the equipment investment and use costs are very expensive, and the economic benefits of equipment management are urgently required.
Maintenance of construction machinery and equipment
1) Raise awareness and clarify the principle of mandatory maintenance. The so-called compulsory maintenance is a rigid requirement for maintenance, which must be carried out on time, and no time or personnel should be arranged for maintenance due to tight construction. It is necessary to carry out modern equipment management education, so that leaders at all levels and the majority of equipment managers understand that the integrity and service life of mechanical equipment is largely determined by the quality of maintenance work.
2) To establish a sound maintenance system and reasonably determine the maintenance cycle, the construction enterprise should adopt a system of regular maintenance, maintenance, and inspection (point bolting), implement the policy of “equal attention to maintenance, and focus on prevention”, and strictly implement scheduled maintenance and regular maintenance. The maintenance and itinerant maintenance system are implemented in accordance with the maintenance procedures at all levels. The low-level maintenance is carried out by the operator, and the high-level maintenance is carried out by the maintenance personnel in conjunction with the mechanical operation. Only if the maintenance is done, the probability of mechanical failure is reduced, so that maintenance costs can be reduced and economic benefits can be improved.
At the same time, the maintenance cycle should be based on the actual situation of the mechanical equipment use and repair, collect various data of use and repair, analyze the use standards of the various subsystems of the mechanical equipment, the law of failure and other factors to comprehensively determine.
3) Strengthen the technical management of the maintenance of mechanical equipment. The mechanical equipment has a strong seasonality in the construction period, the scattered mobility of the construction work and the harsh working environment. In view of these characteristics of construction machinery and equipment, strengthening the maintenance of machinery and equipment and timely maintenance are the main content of strengthening its technical management work.
First of all, strengthen maintenance to ensure that the equipment is in good technical condition. It is necessary to establish the idea of ”on time maintenance, maintenance by level, and maintenance by item”, highlighting “scientific, mandatory, and predictive” to prevent problems before they occur. Secondly, repair meticulously to ensure timely repair of equipment. In the equipment maintenance work, it is necessary to equip with high-level and experienced maintenance personnel, highlight preventiveness, pertinence and effectiveness, and pay attention to the assembly process and optimizing the repair process.
At present, the overall level of maintenance and management of tunnel machinery and equipment in my country is not high, and the maintenance of machinery and equipment is not emphasized. In fact, this situation has shortened the life cycle of mechanical equipment, accelerated the renewal of mechanical equipment, and brought greater loss of profits, and even caused safety accidents and endangered lives.
It is necessary to strengthen the maintenance of mechanical equipment to ensure that the mechanical equipment runs in good condition and avoid the delay and loss of construction period caused by mechanical failure. In short, the maintenance of tunnel machinery and equipment should be strengthened, and necessary manpower and material resources should be invested in the research of maintenance technology.